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What is NFC? What is the smartphone mobile payments technology known as Near Field Communications? March 6, 2011

Posted by HubTechInsider in Ecommerce, Mobile Software Applications, Telecommunications, Wireless Applications.
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It has been several years now that I have been reading and hearing about mobile phone toting consumers being able to purchase soft drinks from vending machines through the use of SMS texts to the vending machine.

The possibilities of a mobile digital wallet, a North American equivalent of European Smartcards and mobile SMS payments systems, to be used as a payments service for smartphones, certainly include the hypothetical future displacement of the cash register as the payment method of choice for consumers on the go.

NFC, or Near Field Communication, may perhaps have such a potential.

Since the middle of December, in and around Portland, Oregon, Google has been handing out hundreds of NFC kits to local businesses as part of an NFC trial they are calling “Hotpot”.

The Google Hotpot kits include special NFC-capable window decals. NFC is a low power technology that beams and receives wireless information from up to four inches away. When consumers with NFC-equipped telephones such as the latest models of Android operating system cellular phones, scan a NFC-equiped window decal, they will be presented with information on their mobile device such as business hours, reviews, and more.

The hope is that the increasingly mobile consumer will willingly engage with local merchants using this new technology, allowing merchants to interact with the generations of consumers growing up with texting and mobile smartphones in their pockets.

2011 is really shaping up to be the year of NFC, with Google considering building an NFC-based payment service in the U.S. that could make its debut later this year. The technology would let customers pay for items by passing their smartphone over a small reader. A single NFC chip would be able to hold a consumer’s bank account information, gift cards, loyalty cards, and coupons, say the two people, who requested anonymity because the plans aren’t public. Google’s NFC scheme includes an advertising component that would allow merchants to beam a coupon or other reward to customers while they are shopping.

Of course, advanced smartphone owners can already complete mobile transactions by downloading payment applications. Paypal’s iPhone iOS application, for example, lets PayPal users transmit funds to other PayPal account holders. But NFC technology could potentially streamline such transactions. Users of advanced smartphones equipped with NFC technology don’t need to launch an application; they simply wave or tap their smartphone against a small reader device and enter a PIN number on it to authenticate their purchases.

A Google NFC network offering would encounter stiff competition from the start from the likes of companies such as Verizon, AT&T and T-Mobile, the three of whom in November 2010 formed a joint commercial venture called ISIS that plans to launch an NFC-based payments service by 2012. Visa is also field testing several mobile payment technologies, including NFC, and plans a commercial rollout later this year. It is rumored that PayPal, a division of eBay, may test an NFC service in the second half of 2011 as well.

Silicon Valley is hard at work on NFC technology too, with Apple having filed a patent for a process to transmit money between cellular telephones using NFC. Apple recently hired NFC expert Benjamin Vigier away from mFoundry, a startup that helps banks build mobile payments applications. If the next iPhone does come equipped with an NFC chip, then perhaps Apple will process mobile payments through Apple’s iTunes store.

The increased competition and jockeying for position in the NFC space is undoubtedly due to the high stakes involved, as the prize for whoever wins the NFC race is a dominant position in a small but fast-growing market that could displace the cash register in time. A leading market research firm, IE Market Research, estimates that by 2014, NFC-based payment systems will account for a third of the $1.13 trillion in worldwide mobile transactions.

In mid-December, Google, whose former CEO, Eric Schmidt, has said that NFC will “eventually replace credit cards”, in December 2010 bought Zetawire, a Canadian startup with several NFC patents to its name, including a novel method for diners to split up and pay a restaurant bill using their smartphones. If Google does decide to launch an NFC payments network, they would have the built-in advantage of its very large and rapidly expanding installed user base of Android smartphone owners. Every single day, around 300,000 people activate Android telephones, and they accounted for more than 25 percent of the new smartphones shipped in the third quarter of 2010, according to the Wall Street Journal.

The latest version of Google’s smartphone operating system, Android, capable of reading NFC tags is dubbed Gingerbread. Later this year, software updates to Android will let Android smartphones transmit information using NFC as well. In December 2010, Google introduced its Nexus S smartphone, based on Android Gingerbread and carrying an NFC chip onboard. In January 2011, Starbucks announced that customers would be able to start using a bar-code application on their smartphones to purchase coffee in some 6,800 of its stores.

There are obstacles to widespread consumer adoption, however. For an NFC-based payments network to really work, Google needs to convince not just Android smartphone owners but also local merchants who must install NFC readers to process mobile payments. Hotpot, which Google has been promoting heavily, introduces merchants to the NFC technology. NFC is already in heavy use in parts of Asia and Europe.


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You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies,software developmentAgile project managementmanaging software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projectsecommerce and telecommunications.

About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurshipecommercetelecommunications andsoftware development, I’m a Technical PMO Director, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of TwitterMiners.com & Tshirtnow.net.


Waltham’s Red Bend Software acquires Santa Clara’s VirtualLogix, for undisclosed terms October 4, 2010

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Waltham’s Red Bend Software, a provider of mobile software management tools, acquires Santa Clara’s VirtualLogix, a provider of real-time virtualization technology for mobile handsets, for undisclosed terms.

Boxborough’s Lightower Fiber Networks acquires Westford’s Veroxity Technology Partners, for undisclosed terms October 4, 2010

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Boxborough’s Lightower Fiber Networks, a provider of fiber network and broadband services, acquires Westford, Massachusetts -based Veroxity Technology Partners, a provider of fiber based data and internet connectivity solutions, for undisclosed terms.

Boxborough’s Lightower Fiber Networks, a fiber network provider, acquires NYC’s Lexent Metro Connect October 3, 2010

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Boxborough’s Lightower Fiber Networks, a fiber network provider, acquires NYC’s Lexent Metro Connect, a provider of dark fiber networks, for undisclosed terms. Lightower Fiber Networks is headquartered in the same old former DEC building that houses eSpendwise, the employer of the Hub Tech Insider.

How much bandwidth does a smartphone use? How much bandwidth does an Apple iPad use? How much bandwidth does an Apple iPhone use? February 7, 2010

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How much bandwidth does a smartphone use? How much bandwidth does an Apple iPad use? How much bandwidth does an Apple iPhone use?

Wireless operators are struggling to keep up with demand as more people use their phones to check Facebook and watch videos online. Here are estimates of how much bandwidth is used per person for various activities on different phones.

One megabyte is roughly equivalent to one digital book, 45 seconds of music, or 20 seconds of medium-quality video.

Feature Phones such as the Motorola Razr are used primarily to make calls, and they consume littel bandwidth even for web activities because they have stripped-down web browsers. Feature phones and their users tend to consume around 100 Megabytes of data downloads a month, using 4 MB of voice calls an hour, and 4 to 5 MB of web browsing per hour.

Smartphones such as Research in Motion’s popular Blackberry, are used for phone calls, email, and light web browsing. Smartphones and their users tend to consume around 185 Megabytes of total monthly data downloads, utilizing 4 MB per hour for voice calls, and 4 to 5 MB of web browsing.

Superphones are advanced smartphones, including Apple’s iPhone and Motorola’s Droid, that make it easy for people to surf the web and watch online videos, leading to much higher bandwidth use.

Superphones and their users tend to consume around 560 Megabytes of total monthly data downloads, using 4 MB per hour for voice calls, 40 MB per hour for web browsing, 60 MB per hour for internet radio, and 200 MB per hour for YouTube videos.

Tablet computers such as Apple’s newly unveiled iPad are likely to send data use even higher. Th iPad will chew up even more bandwidth than the iPone because of its larger screen. Tablet computer and iPad users tend to consume 800 to 1,000 Megabytes of total monthly data downloads, using 50 to 60 MB per hour for web browsing, 60 MB per hour for internet radio, and 300 to 400 MB per hour for YouTube videos.

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  Feature Phones Smartphones Superphones Tablet Computers
Monthly Totals
100 MB
185 MB
560 MB
800-1K MB
Voice Calls
4 MB / Hr.
4 MB / Hr.
4 MB / Hr.
 
Web Browsing
4-5 MB/Hr.
4-5 MB/Hr
40 MB/Hr.
50-60 MB/Hr
Internet Radio     60 MB/Hr.
60 MB / Hr.
YouTube Videos     200MB/Hr 3-400MB/Hr.


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You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.


About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m the Senior Technical Project Manager at eSpendWise, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of Tshirtnow.net.


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Structuring Venture Capital Deals: M.I.T. Enterprise Forum Panel Discussion (Video) December 1, 2009

Posted by HubTechInsider in Conferences, events, Management, Startups, Venture Capital.
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Structuring Venture Capital Deals: M.I.T. Enterprise Forum Panel Discussion (2-Hr Video)

With Joseph Hadzima, Jr., Moderator. Jorge Contreras, Jr., Stanley Fung, Gregory Moore, Paul Severino

Hosted by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Enterprise Forum

20 January, 2000
MIT’s Kresge Auditorium, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Although this presentation was given at a different era and time in the Boston venture capital ecosystem life cycle, nonetheless the august panel does a superb job of presenting the material concisely and throughly, to the point of making this video a must-watch not only for the methodical outlining of the step-by step preparations an entrepreneur must make before approaching venture capitalists for equity funding for their companies, but also for the exhaustive definitions of venture capital deal terms and deal points given and the illuminating perspectives offered by the various parties involved in a venture capital deal for a venture capital funded company.

This video lasts approximately two hours. I was in attendance at the conference, and if you look very closely, you can see me in the audience in one of the audience questions shots, during the questions-and-answers period after the primary discussions (I’m in a suit and tie).

Please leave comments as to how you think things may have changed in the time since this presentation, how things may have remained the same, and how perspectives and deal flows and volumes may have changed or stayed the same.

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Want to know more?

You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.

About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. I have been working in the software engineering and ecommerce industries for over fifteen years. My interests include computers, electronics, robotics and programmable microcontrollers, and I am an avid outdoorsman and guitar player. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, follow me on Quora, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m a Technical PMO Director, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of several ecommerce and web-based software startups, the latest of which are Twitterminers.com and Tshirtnow.net.

Attleboro’s Sensata Technologies, a sensors and controls company, preps a $500 Million IPO November 30, 2009

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Attleboro, Massachusetts based Sensata Technologies, a sensors and controls company with approximately $797 Million in revenues, is preparing a $500 Million IPO, to be underwritten by Morgan Stanley, Barclays Capital, and Goldman Sachs. The NYSE stock symbol for the company has not been disclosed as of yet.

Cambridge’s MF Analytics, Ltd, a financial solutions provider for Microfinance and SME institutions, is acquired by TriLinc Global, LLC November 27, 2009

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Cambridge, Massachusetts -based MF Analytics, Ltd, a financial solutions provider for Microfinance and SME institutions, is acquired by TriLinc Global, LLC of Los Angeles, California. TriLinc Global is a social impact investment company. The financial terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

MIT Venture Capital Conference: December 4th, 8am-6pm Copley Place Hotel, Boston November 27, 2009

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The MIT Venture Capital & Private Equity Club presents the 12th annual MIT Venture Capital Conference. From the conference website: “Against the background of a quickly changing economic environment, the 2009 conference will illuminate the critical trends and opportunities available in this ‘Brave New World.’ How have dramatic shifts in the political and financial worlds changed the venture capital and entrepreneurial landscape? If this is the time to start or fund a venture, where are the best opportunities in healthcare, energy, digital media, internet and mobile? How are venture capital funds adapting given the challenges in exit markets and LP relationships? Can the VC model work in emerging and social markets?” Keynote speakers include Twitter co-founder Biz Stone and Greycroft managing director Alan Patricof. Full agenda and registration information here.

BitWave Semiconductor of Lowell, MA raises $1.33 Million from a group of undisclosed investors November 18, 2009

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BitWave Semiconductor, the programmable transceiver company based in Lowell, MA raises $1.33 Million from a group of undisclosed investors.

Westford, MA based wireless video technology company Aylus Networks Inc raises $5.7 Million in a Series C round of equity financing November 17, 2009

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Westford, MA based wireless video technology company Aylus Networks Inc raises $5.7 Million in a Series C round of equity financing from a number of undisclosed institutional investors.

Skyhook Wireless, based in Boston, makes chips that improve the performance of Google Maps on Nokia smartphones November 13, 2009

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Boston-based Skyhook Wireless is expected to announce next week that it’s releasing an application for Nokia smartphones that will give owners a far faster and more accurate fix on their locations. Skyhook’s $2.99 Maps Booster works on any Symbian S60 handset and will be available starting next week through Nokia’s new and much-heralded Ovi app store; it replaces the Symbian operating system’s built-in location-finding platform with Skyhook’s software, which then feeds location data directly to other location-aware apps such as Google Maps. The company says it created the program because Nokia phones are notorious for their slow performance in GPS mode. “With such high price tags, we think all features of Nokia smartphones should work perfectly,” Kate Imbach, Skyhook’s director of marketing and developer programs, said in a statement. “Maps Booster, finally, will make the location on any Nokia S60 device work just as well as location on the iPhone.”

Get ready for high definition cellular and landline telephone calls November 3, 2009

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For over forty years, the quality of telephone calls has changed very little. The shift in the 1990’s from analog to digital cellular technology promised crisper quality, but the results never panned out. Struggling with 30% annual increases in cellular traffic, cellular telephone companies used the improved technology to add capacity, not improved quality.

Today the demand for cellular minutes is nearing its zenith, with mature growth levels of only 3% in the past year. Now the relentless advance of digital technology advances in cellular communications can be used for purposes other than simply packing more telephone calls into the cellular airwaves.

To this point in time, the big U.S. carriers plan to use their growing capability to provide all sorts of data services, but eventually, the cost of better sounding voice calls will be too cheap to ignore. Today’s carriers convert telephone calls into 6,000 digital bits per second, a tight squeeze and the major reason telephone calls sound so poor today. In the tiny European country of Moldova, French wireless carrier Orange has now deployed the world’s first high definition cellular telephone network, which uses double the number of bits per second. The highs and lows of the human voice are not so badly mangled using the high definition cellular telephone system.

In the U.S., chipmaker Broadcom is working on new equipment that will allow even better-sounding telephone calls. 32,000 digital bits per second will produce voice quality that is virtually indistinguishable from face-to-face conversation. The technology portends a clear audible improvement over not just ordinary cellular telephones but also landline telephones, which chop off high frequencies, especially above 3 kHz, the frequency range in which much human speech falls into.

Another big problem with cellular telephone calls is the annoying apparent lag that occurs between the moment when one caller speaks and the time his voice reaches the other person’s ear. Many people assume that’s an inherent drawback of cellular telephones, but it is not. Wireless digital cellular signals fly through the air at the speed of light just as they do in optical fiber – the delays come from slow software and circuitous routing. The new Long Term Evolution (LTE) gear set for deployment next year should cut that lag by at least 75%, so much that most human ears won’t notice it anymore.

Landline telephones stand to gain from the same quality advances as well. Orange has already installed 500,000 high definition landline telephones in Europe that use voice over internet technology (VOIP). When this style of telephone connection first hit the scene, it was roundly criticized for its poor sound quality relative to traditional landline telephones, but Orange and other carriers, some of whom are in the U.S. like Vonage, have shown that better technology can close that quality gap and then some. Both cellular telephone and Internet landline telephone calls may soon sound terrific as a result.

Pyxis Mobile develops mobile applications for the hot mobile software market from their headquarters in Waltham, MA June 12, 2009

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6 billion wireless applications will be downloaded to smartphones by 2014, and Waltham, MA-based Pyxis Mobile is aiming to have a large piece of that market.

The company began selling software for mobile telephones in 2004.

The top picks for development environments in the mobile space seem to be RIM’s Blackberry platform, Microsoft’s Windows Mobile, and Apple’s iPhone platform. RIM leads among business users, having sold 17.5 million Blackberry devices used for business last year, compared with 11.6 million Windows Mobile devices, 9.8 million telephones running Symbian, and 3.9 million iPhones. Google’s Android platform is a new competitor in this space, with several new Android handsets coming onto the market this year.

Pyxis Mobile is concentrating most of its development efforts on the Blackberry platform, but also has versions of its software available for both the iPhone and Windows Mobile.

What is Cao’s Law? June 11, 2009

Posted by HubTechInsider in Definitions, Fiber Optics, Telecommunications.
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Cao’s Law states that the communications spectrum is virtually infinite and that WDM (Wave Division Multiplexing) will allow the information transmitted upon the available spectrum to expand exponentially as the growth of transistors in Moore’s Law. Using less and less power, WDM will allow finer and finer channels of light to transmit more and more data. Cao’s Law states that these lambdas will expand at a rate two to three times the rate of expansion of transistors on an integrated circuit chip as in Moore’s Law. On optical fibers, as opposed to the tradeoffs between power and connectivity in the transistor world, in the optical realm, the tradeoff is between bitrate and channel count. To this point of the technology’s development, we can either pump a high bitrate on each channel or we can transmit lots of channels, but we cannot do both of these things at the same time. Among telecom carriers today, there seems to be a manifestation of Simon Cao’s Law in action in the real world.

SS7 – Signaling System Seven – Telecommunications Protocol SS7 June 10, 2009

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SS7 software layers

SS7 software layers

In Signaling System 7 (SS7) protocol, a worldwide standard (with variations), routing intelligence is located in low cost computer-based equipment rather than in central office switches.

One of the primary benefits of SS7 is global interoperability. It has the capability to enable all carriers to cooperate with each other. It is a standard protocol approved by the ITU. Global billing, toll-free calling, 900-number services, and international wireless call roaming are all call features that are dependent on SS7.

SS7 is used on a global basis. In North America, the ANSI version of SS7 is used. In Europe, the ETSI version is used. In other pats of the world, the ITU version of SS7 is used.

Gateways allow these international SS7 implementations to communicate with each other.

SS7 is essential to modern networking. With SS7, an overlaid packet switched network controls the underlying voice network’s operation and signaling information is carried on a separate channel from voice and data traffic.

Because signaling is such a quick network activity, it is possible to multiplex many signaling messages over one signaling channel using a packet switching arrangement.

SS7 permits the telephone company to provide one database for several switches in order to freeup switch capability for other functions. This is the capability that makes SS7 the foundation for Intelligent Networks (INs) as well as Advanced Intelligent Networks (AINs).

As an example, in order to provide a service such as 900 number and toll-free calling, in SS7, powerful parallel processing computer systems hold massive databases with information such as routing instructions for toll-free and 900 number telephone calls. One processor with its database supports many central office switches under SS7. in this way, each central office itself is not required to host the centralized database. Without the need to share the expense of maintaining the sophisticated routing information, each central office can share in the expense of a database or feature upgrade to the centralized SS7 datastore.

MCI first implemented SS7 into its network in 1988. SS7 enabled them to halve their call setup time on calls between Philadelphia and Los Angeles. Freeing up voice channels from their previous signaling duties pre-SS7 enabled carriers to pack more voice calls on their existing network paths.

Cellular networks use SS7 technology to support roaming. Every cellular provider has a database called the home location register, or HLR, where complete information regarding each subscriber is kept. They also maintain a database called the VLR, or visitor location register, that maintains information on each caller who visits from other areas. When a cellular subscriber roams, each network they visit exchanges SS7 messages with their “home” network. The subscriber’s home system also marks its HLR so that it knows where to send calls for its customers who are roaming.

SS7 has three major components:

1. Packet switches – Signal Transfer Points that route signals between databases and central switches. STPs, or Signal Transfer Points, are responsible for translating the SS7 messages and then routing these messages amongst the various network nodes and databases. Signal Transfer points are packet switches that route signals between central offices as specialized databases. Messages are sent between points on the SS7 network in variable-length packets with the addresses attached. Signal transfer switches read only the address portion of the packets and forward the messages accordingly.

2. Service Switching Points – Software and ports in central offices that enable switches to query databases. SSPs are the switches that begin and end calls. They receive signals from the Customer Provided Equipment (CPE) and then process the calls on the behalf of the end users. The user triggers the network to provide various services by dialing particular digits. SSPs are typically implemented at access tandem offices, local exchanges or toll centers that contain the needed network signaling protocols. The SSP serves as the begining and ending point for SS7 messaging.

3. Service Control Points – DBs with customer feature and billing information. Service Control Points, or SCPs, interface with SSPs as well as STPs. The STP contains the network configuration and call-completion database – the SCP contains all the service logic that is needed to deliver the type of call and feature in the call that the user is requesting. SCPs are centralized network nodes that contain software and databases needed for call management. Functions such as digit translation, call routing and verification of credit cards are all provided by SCPs. Usually a SCP will receive traffic from a SSP via the STP and will then return responses based on those queries by way of the STP.

The SS7 signaling data link is a full duplex digital transmission channel that operates at either 56 Kbs (T-Carrier transmission systems, in North America) or 64 Kbps (E_Carrier transmission systems, Europe). SS7 also defines a number of other types of links, each with a specific use within a SS7 network.

A (access) links
B (bridge) links, D (diagonal) links, and B/D links
C (cross) links
E (extended) links
F (fully associated) links

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You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.

About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. I have been working in the software engineering and ecommerce industries for over fifteen years. My interests include computers, electronics, robotics and programmable microcontrollers, and I am an avid outdoorsman and guitar player. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, follow me on Quora, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m a Technical PMO Director, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of several ecommerce and web-based software startups, the latest of which are Twitterminers.com and Tshirtnow.net.

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What is an ACNA? What is a CCNA code in telecommunications? June 8, 2009

Posted by HubTechInsider in Definitions, Fiber Optics, Telecommunications, Uncategorized.
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An ACNA stands for Access Customer Name Abbreviation; It is a three-digit alpha code assigned to identify carriers, both ILECs (Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers) and CLECs (Competitive Local Exchange Carriers), for billing and other identification purposes.

It is closely related to the CCNA code, or the Customer Carrier Name Abbreviation, which identifies the common language code for the IXC (InterExchange Carrier) providing the interLATA facility.

The CCNA reflects the code to be contacted for provisioning whereas the ACNA reflects the IXC to be billed for the service.

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You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.

About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m the Senior Technical Project Manager at eSpendWise, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of Tshirtnow.net.

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What is the Mu-Law PCM voice coding standard used in North American T-Carrier telecommunications transmission systems? June 8, 2009

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Mu-Law encoding is the PCM voice coding standard used in Japan and North America. It is a companding standard, both compressing the input and expanding the data upon opening after transmission. Mu Law is a PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) encoding algorithm where the analog voice signal is sampled eight thousand times per second, with each sample being represented by eight bits, thus yielding a raw transmission rate of 64 Kps. Each sample consists of a sign bit, a three bit segment which specifies a logarithmic rqange, and a four bit step offset into the range. The bits of the sample are inverted before transmission. A Law encoding is the voice coding standard which is used in Europe.

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You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.

About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m the Senior Technical Project Manager at eSpendWise, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of Tshirtnow.net.

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