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What’s the difference between a first generation and a second generation Optical Switch? April 24, 2009

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Two types of optical switches are currently being produced: switches with electrical cores (i.e., first-generation optical switches) and switches with optical cores (i.e., next-generation optical switches). The elctronics in first-generation switches slow their capability to work with the very high rates that the fiber itself can support. The future lies in the pure optical switches, but we still have to fully develop the microphotonics industry; Thus, integrated photonic circuits are really the next key technology required to drive the optical networking industry forward.pr05_3dmems01

An explanantion of UNE and Unbundled Networked Elements and Telecommunications Industry “Unbundling” April 23, 2009

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The telecommunications act of 1996 requires that the ILECs unbundle their NEs (Network Elements) and make them available to the CLECs on the basis of incremental cost. UNEs are defined as physical and functional elements of the network, e.g., NIDs (Network Interface Devices), local loops and subloops (portions of local loops), circuit-switching and switch ports, interoffice transmission facilities, signaling and call-related databases, OSSs (Operational Support Systems), operator services and directory assistance, and packet or data switching. When combined into a complete set in order to provide an end-to-end circuit, the UNEs constitute a UNE-P (UNE-Platform). Unbundled Network Elements is a term used in negociations between a CLEC and the ILEC to describe the various network components that will be used or leased by the CLEC from the ILEC. These components include such things as the actual copper wire to the customers, fiber strands, and local switching. The CLEC will lease these UNEs with pricing based on the previously-signed Interconnection Agreement between the CLEC and the ILEC. Typically, a CLEC will colocate a switch at the ILEC’s wire center, then pay for the “unbundled” local loop to make a connection to the customer. Alternatively, a CLEC might lease both an unbundled local loop and an unbundled switch, and make a connection to their network at the LEC’s switch.

An exploration of telecom USOC (pronounced “U-Sock”) codes April 22, 2009

Posted by HubTechInsider in Definitions, Telecommunications, Uncategorized.
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Uniform Service Order Code (pronounced “U-Sock”) is a structured language that allows for the development of software to support service order systems in the telephone industry. The service order process utilizes the USOC, along with Field Identifiers (FIDs), to provision, bill and maintain services and equipment. USOCs can be either three or five alpha/numeric characters. A plus (+) sign indicates a variable suffix position. Suffixes define options of the USOC i.e. color, jurisdiction, speed. To prevent confusion the letter “o” is used and zero is not; the number “1” is used and the letter “I” is not. USOCs are designed for tariffed services, official company services, coin services, equipment, detariffed services, etc. The Bell operating companies in the United States and many independent telephone companies use USOCs to communicate both within their company and between companies. Many new companies in the industry are using the USOC information to interpret incumbent telephone company records when they are supplying new service to a customer. The different companies may have different names for the same services, but the USOC name is generic and therefore becomes a common naming device between companies.





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You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.


About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m the Senior Technical Project Manager at eSpendWise, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of Tshirtnow.net.


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The differences between IPT, Internet Telephony, and VoIP April 22, 2009

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People use several IP-realted terms interchangeably. However, according to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU; http://www.itu.int), there are distinctions between the following terms:

* IPT – The transmission of voice, fax, and related services over a packet-switched IP-based network. Internet telephony and VoIP are specific subsets of IPT.

* Internet Telephony – Telephony in which the principal transmission network is the public internet. Internet telephony is commonly referred to as Voice over the Net, Internet phone, and net telephony, with appropriate modifications to refer to fax as well, such as Internet Fax.

* VoIP – IPT in which the principal transmission network or networks are private, managed IP-based networks.





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You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.


About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m the Senior Technical Project Manager at eSpendWise, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of Tshirtnow.net.

The application of Moore’s Law-type metrics to Fiber Optics April 21, 2009

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fiberThe basic equation in assessing the development of optics is that every year, the data rate that can be supported on a wavelength doubles and the number of wavelengths that can be supported on a fiber doubles as well.

Developments in optical networking have caused the cost of transport to drop dramatically in recent years. Over the past decade, the cost of moving bits has dropped so dramatically that if the automobile industry could match it, you could buy a BMW for just a dollar or two.

International Telecommunications Industry Standards Organizations over time April 21, 2009

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The following timeline details some of the important dates in the history of standards organizations:

1865 The ITU was established by 20 European states at the first International Telegraph Convention.

1923 The CCIF was established in Paris for the study of long distance telephony.

1925 The CCITT (not the ITU-T) was established for the technical study of telephony problems. The CCIF and CCITT both became part of the ITU.

1927 The CCIR was formed in Washington, with the objective of concentrating on technical issues surrounding radio communications.

1947 The ITU was recognized as an agency of the United Nations, specializing in telecommunications.

1959 The CCIF and the CCITT were combined and became known simply as the CCITT, now called the ITU-T.

An explanantion of telecommunications industry CLLI “Silly” Codes April 20, 2009

Posted by HubTechInsider in Definitions, Fiber Optics, Telecommunications, Uncategorized, Wireless Applications.
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What the heck is a “Silly” Code? Allow me to explain…

A CLLI, (pronounced “Silly”) code is a telecommunications industry-standard and is an alphanumeric code of 11 characters, CLLI was developed by Bellcore (now telecordia Technologies) as a method of identifying physical locations and equipment such as buildings, central offices, poles, and antennas. Each CLLI code conforms to one of three basic formats (Network Entity, Network Support Site and Customer Site). Each format, in turn, determines how these six coding elements are used:

Geographical Codes (Example: DNVR = Denver) Typically assigned to cities, towns, suburbs, villages, hamlets, military installations and international airports, geographical codes can also be mapped to mountains, bodies of water and satellities in fixed-earth orbit.

Geopolitical Codes (Example: CO = Colorado) Typically assigned to countries, states and provinces, geopolitical and geographical codes can be combined to form a location identifyer that is unique worldwide.

Network Site Codes (Example: 56 = A Central Office on Main Street) This element is used with geographical and geopolitcal codes to represent buildings, structures, enclosures or other locations at which there is a need to identify and describe one or more functional entities. This category includes central office buildings, business and commercial offices, certain microwave-radio relay buildings and earth stations, universities, hospitals, military bases and other government complexes, garages, sheds and small buildings, phone centers and controlled environmental vaults.

Network Entity Codes (Example: DS0 = A digital switch) This element can be used with geographical, geopolitical and network-site codes to identify and describe functional categories of equipment, administrative groups or maintenance centers involved in the operations taking place at a given location.

Network Support Site Codes (Example: P1234 = A telephone pole) This element can be used with geographical and geopolitical codes to identify and describe the location of international boundaries or crossing points, end points, fiber nodes, cable and facility junctions, manholes, poles, radio-equipment sites, repeaters and tall stations.

Customer Site Codes (Example: 1A101 = A Customer) This element can be used with geographical and geopolitical codes to identify and describe customer locations associated with switched-service networks, centrex installations; Trunk forecasting, cable, carrier or fiber terminations, NCTE, CPE and PBX equipment, military installations, shopping malls, universities and hospitals.

Consider the real-life example of NYCMNY18DS0. The first four characters identify the place name (NYCM is New York City Manhattan). The following two characters identify the state, region, or territory (NY is New York). The remaining five chracters identify the specific item at that place (18DS0 is the AT&T 5E Digital Serving Office on West 18th Street, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues). Phone companies use CLLI Codes for a variety of purposes, including identifying and ordering private lines and trapping and tracing of annoying or threatening calls.

CLLI Code – Facility Identification codes provide unique identification of facilities (cable and carrier systems) between any two interconnected CLLI coded locations. The CLFI code is a variable length, mnemonic code with a maximum of 38 characters. Example: 101T1LSANCA03NWRKNJAA. This example says that there is a T-1 carrier connected between the Los Angeles, California Central Office to the Newark, New Jersey Central Office.





Want to know more?

You’re reading Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a blog stuffed with years of articles about Boston technology startups and venture capital-backed companies, software development, Agile project management, managing software teams, designing web-based business applications, running successful software development projects, ecommerce and telecommunications.


About the author.

I’m Paul Seibert, Editor of Boston’s Hub Tech Insider, a Boston focused technology blog. You can connect with me on LinkedIn, follow me on Twitter, even friend me on Facebook if you’re cool. I own and am trying to sell a dual-zoned, residential & commercial Office Building in Natick, MA. I have a background in entrepreneurship, ecommerce, telecommunications and software development, I’m the Senior Technical Project Manager at eSpendWise, I’m a serial entrepreneur and the co-founder of Tshirtnow.net.

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Where the “Bluetooth” protocol got it’s name April 18, 2009

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In the tenth century, there was a king in Denmark named Harald Blatand, which translates to Harold Bluetooth in English. King Blatand was instrumental in united warring factions in parts of what is now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. He was renowned for his ability to help people communicate.
During the formative stages of the IEEE 802.15.1 trade association, the effort required a name. It was thought that just as King Blatand had untied warring factions, so is Bluetooth technology designed to allow collaborative networking among disparate industries, such as mobile telephones, automotive markets, and the computer industry. The name proves resilient and has been with us ever since.
Even the Bluetooth logo has an interesting origin. To read about it, click here.

What is ACCU-Ring Optical Networking? Why is it so special? April 17, 2009

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A high-performance ring optical network offers important advantages over conventional solutions. ACCU-Ring provides a reliable, cost-effective solution for your data networking needs. ACCU-Ring is a private network backbone that uses a dedicated high-speed fiber ring to carry all of a customer’s network traffic. ACCU-Ring service accommodates private line, switched and enhanced services to carry local and long distance voice, data, and video traffic. This simplifies access to multiple services – helping you to save time and money.

ACCU-Ring service can:
• Consolidate multiple services on a single, integrated access service
• Increase security and reliability for critical applications
• Simplify vendor relationships through a single point of contact and outsourced management.
Description

ACCU-Ring service establishes connections on a dual-fiber ring network between Acess Supplier points of presence, customer premises, and local access providers. ACCU-Ring service is a redundant, self-healing SONET ring architecture that automatically reroutes traffic around network trouble spots in milliseconds.

ACCU-Ring’s self-healing ring architecture is redundant, providing diverse routing backup protection and eliminating single points of failure. If a facility or equipment failure or a transmission problem occurs in the service path, the SONET ring circuit automatically switches to the protect path in less than 100 milliseconds. This protects critical applications from being disrupted or degraded due to loss of signal or transmission impairment.

Applications for ACCU-Ring service are:
• LAN and WAN interconnection
• Full-motion video / Broadcast video
• Imaging

Benefits

• Comprehensive Service Assurance Warranty
• Dedicated Surveillance Center – Offers around-the-clock Customer Care with 24 x 7 x 365 support
• SONET Reliability – Delivers self-healing SONET ring reroutes around failures in milliseconds
• Network Availability – Designed to provide 99.999% target availability
• Flexible and Scalable – Assures premier nationwide network support for changing needs now and in the future.
• Full Installation Testing – Provides rigorous testing and certification, assuring that each customer’s service meets demanding ACCU-Ring standards.

Available Bandwidth Options
• OC-3 (155 Mbps)
• OC-12 (622 Mbps)
• OC-48 (2.5 Gbps)
• OC-192 (9.9 Gbps) Nodes

ACCU-Ring Service Channel Options
Service Channels connect your on-network locations. Standard and Ethernet Service Channels are available with several bandwidth choices:

Standard Channel Options
• 1.5 Mbps (DS1)
• 45 Mbps (DS3)
• 155 Mbps (OC-3/OC-3c)
• 622 Mbps (OC-12c)
• 2.5 Gbps (OC-48c)

Ethernet Channel Options
• 50 Mbps
• 150 Mbps
• 300 Mbps
• 600 Mbps
• 1 Gbps

How the Baby Bells got back together April 17, 2009

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When AT&T agreed to divest its local telecom business in 1984, it was divided into Baby Bells that represented the seven major regions of the United States. Over the past 25 years, these companies have merged, and four of them are back under the AT&T umbrella. Briefly, here is where the original Baby Bells are now:

1995: Southwestern Bell changes its name to SBC.

1996: New England-based NYNEX is acquired by fellow RBOC Bell Atlantic.

1997: Pacific Telesis is acquired by SBC.

1999: SBC acquires Ameritech, making it the dominant phone company throughout the midwestern United States.

2000: Bell Atlantic acquires GTE and changes its name to Verizon; the company is now the dominant player in the Northeastern united States. Qwest Communications acquires Baby Bell U.S. West, making it the major phone company in most of the western United States.

2005: SBC buys AT&T

2006: AT&T buys BellSouth, the last of the original RBOCs

2008: FairPoint buys Verizon’s landline ILEC operations in the northern New England states, first ever takeover of a former RBOC territory in the continental United States.

Independent Game Conference East is in Boston – May 7-8 at Northeastern University April 15, 2009

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The IGC East is for developers of console, flash and casual games who want a leg up on the competition and for the publishers who want to see the hottest games in development by the rising stars of the industry.

The IGC Game Demo Night is the place to show your game off to the game publishers is a setting where your game is not one of thousands. By limiting the number of people who can register for the Game Demo Night we make certain that your game is not lost, but has the space to shine.

Publishers can find the next big game at the Game Demo Night where independent developers bring their skills and commitment to the show.

The sessions at the IGC focus on the business of being an independent developer as well as the technical demands of game development. With our three track approach the IGC is the place to be no matter what stage of development your company has reached.

The business track will give you a leg up on the completion with information on how best to leverage your IP.
The technical track focuses on the latest technology and how to take your game to the next level.
The IGC has helped publishers spot the next hot game or game developer and game companies get their name out to the publishers. The IGC has lead to successfully brokered deals in the Southern United States for the past two years and now we are bringing our proven success to the East Coast.

There will also be a IGC Job Fair held at the event!

For more information on the event, please contact Mark Chuberka.

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What the Heck is a MPLS NGN? April 14, 2009

Posted by HubTechInsider in Fiber Optics, Telecommunications.
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Ever since I heard of MPLS NGN, I have been excited about the potential for the latest backbone networking technology and wanted to find out more about it. After reading through several books on MPLS NGNs, their architecture, the advantages, and what their potential for ILEC provisoners as well as CLEC access providers truly is, I think I am ready to outline the definition of a MPLS NGN, describe in an extremely non-technical way how they work, what they do, and what kinds of services they will enable in the future. I also try and expand just a bit on why I think they are so important, and what kinds of traditional weakness and deficiencies is the networks that have gone before they are able to address. And addressing on the fly is really at the heart of what a MPLS NGN does so well: 

General Architecture of a Multiprotocol Label Switching, Next Generation Network

MPLS is an acronym for Multiprotocol Label Switching. A NGN is a Next Generation Network. 

MPLS was created to address the weaknesses in traditional IP networks. Please recall that IP was designed to support “best effort” services. In other words, routers contain no inherent perception of the existence of or proper functioning of connections or rings; they see the ports and addresses that are available to their discovery via priority cues and routing tables. Simply put, IP routing lacks intelligence. So-called “Least cost” routing was designed to conduct traffic along the network using the shortest possible number of hops, which means traffic on the network could potentially take shorter, congested paths rather than the potentially more efficient longer, uncongested paths, leading to network “hotspots” and degrading network performance.

The MPLS environment, which has been gaining increased attention, was born out of Cisco’s tag switching. MPLS was originally proposed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) in 1997, with the core specifications being finalized in 2000. MPLS’s ability to plot static paths through an IP network gives service providers the traffic-engineering ability they crave, and the capability for provisioning (in the telecom sense of that word) VPNs is greatly strengthened. In fact, MPLS provides a very solid base for VPNs – and with increased capability for traffic engineering, service providers are able to tightly control and maintain QoS as well as optimize network utilization.

Although technically not an IP network, despite the fact that it can run in routers and uses IP routing protocols like OSPF and IS-IS, MPLS is one of the most significant developments in IP. To truly understand why this is, you also need to know that although it can also use repurposed ATM switch hardware, MPLS is, again technically, not an ATM network. 

MPLS is another type of network entirely: MPLS is a service-enabling technology. Think of MPLS like a general purpose, tunneling technology. As such, it is capable of carrying both IP and non-IP payloads. It uses what is called “label switching” to transport cells or packets over any data link layer throughout the network.

Much like the inband and out-of-band signaling on the PSTN, MPLS separates the forwarding, or transport, plane from the control plane. By so doing, it enables the capability to run the control plane on devices which cannot actually understand IP or recognize the boundaries of incoming packets. MPLS itself is an encapsulating protocol that has the ability to transport a number of other protocols. These protocols are encapsulated with a label that at each hop is swapped. The label is a number, or UID (Unique Identifier) that identifies a set of data flows along a particular logical link. They are only of local significance and they must change as a packets follow along a predetermined path – they literally switch.

MPLS’s potential to untie IP and optical switching under one route-provisioning umbrella is of great benefit, but it was designed to address two problems inherent in IP networks: IP sends all traffic over the same route between two points, and it cannot absolutely guarantee network resources, because as you will recall, IP is a connectionless protocol. These two shortcomings, in times of heavy network traffic, lead to some routes becoming underutilized while others become congested. Lacking control over the routing assignments, the provider cannot steer traffic from congested to less busy routes. So one key differentiator between IP and MPLS is the simple fact the MPLS networks can steer packets between two points along different paths depending upon their switching MPLS labels.

Mass Innovation Nights at Charles River Museum of Industry in Waltham, MA April 13, 2009

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Massachusetts Innovation nights, a self-described “Science Fair for Adults”, will be held at the Charles River Museum of Industry in Waltham, MA. For those of you not familiar with Waltham, MA, it is located on the Charles River, and is the “Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution”. Also known as the “Watch City” due to the longtime presence of the now-defunct Waltham Watch Company, which not many people know created the instrumentation for the Apollo lunar landers!

From the Mass Innovation website:

Mass Innovation Nights (MIN) is designed to provide Massachusetts-based innovators with ways (both online and in the real world) to connect with the media, the marketplace and each other.
Held once a month at the Charles River Museum of Industry & Innovation, in Waltham near Route 128, the Launch Parties are FREE to presenters and open to the public. The live events showcase great new products produced by local companies.  Attendees — you get in free too, all we ask is that you help spread the word about cool new products that you see at MIN events.  If you don’t blog, or Tweet (#MIN), or Facebook, tell a neighbor or a friend (yes, in person, you know, talking…)

MassInnovationNights.com allows companies large and small to showcase their new products to an audience of social media enthusiasts, mass media and potential customers.  MIN attendees will be blogging, Tweeting, Flickr’ing, Qik’ing and whatever’ing — helping you to get the word out about your new product — even if YOU don’t have a marketing team of your own.  MIN live events are an exciting and fun-filled opportunity for networking, talking with the product team, and perusing the latest technology and innovative products Massachusetts has to offer.

Product Managers, Product Developers, Marketing and PR

Submit your new product announcements and commit to presenting your products at the live events.  There is NO charge for presenting.  This is a first come-first served type situation for the first few events.  Eventually we’ll get a voting system on the site.

Attend Free Events

Visitors to the site RSVP for the FREE live events (second Wednesday of every month) held at the Charles River Museum of Industry and Innovation in Waltham (free wireless too!) and can peruse the list of already committed attendees in order to make plans for networking. MIN is great for connecting job seekers and recruiters.

All we ask is that you help spread the word about the event and any great product that catches your eye.  (Yes, it’s Karma-time!  We throw a fun party — and there will undoubtedly be after-parties up and down Moody Street — and all we ask in return is that you support Massachusetts-made products by helping to spread the word about them.)”

Sign up for our next event today.

Here is the upcoming schedule for the Mass Innovation Nights:

Schedule

* April 8, 2009
* May 13, 2009
* June 10, 2009
* July 8, 2009
* August 12, 2009
* September 9, 2009
* October 14, 2009
* November 11, 2009
* December 9, 2009

More information is available on the Mass Innovation website:

http://massinnovationnights.com/

Click here for an interesting Boston GLobe article on a recent Mass Innovation Night

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